固定的俄羅斯資產:理事會決定撥出特別收入

2024/02/13閱讀時間約 11 分鐘

固定的俄羅斯資產:理事會決定撥出特別收入 Immobilised Russian assets: Council decides to set aside extraordinary revenues    European Council 20240212 / Taimocracy翻譯

The Council today adopted a decision and a regulation clarifying the obligations of Central Securities Depositories (CSD) holding assets and reserves of the Central Bank of Russia (CBR) that are immobilised as consequence of EU’s restrictive measures.  理事會今天通過了一項決定和一項法規,澄清了持有俄羅斯中央銀行(CBR)資產和儲備的各國中央證券存管機構(CSD)義務,這些資產和儲備因歐盟的限制性措施而被凍結。

After Russia launched its illegal and unjustified full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the EU, in coordination with international partners, decided to prohibit any transactions related to the management of reserves as well as of assets of the CBR. As a result of that prohibition, the relevant assets held by financial institutions in the EU member states are “immobilised”.  2022年2月,俄羅斯對烏克蘭發動非法、無理的全面入侵後,歐盟與國際夥伴協調,決定禁止與俄羅斯央行的儲備和資產管理相關的任何交易活動。由於這項禁令,歐盟成員國金融機構持有的相關資產被「凍結」。

Today’s decision, in line with G7 position, clarifies the prohibition of those transactions as well as the legal status of the revenues generated by the CSDs in connection with holding of Russian immobilised assets and sets clear rules for the entities holding them. The Council decided in particular that CSDs holding more than €1 million of CBR’s assets must account extraordinary cash balances accumulating due to EU restrictive measures separately and must also keep corresponding revenues separate. In addition, CSDs shall be prohibited from disposing of the ensuing net profits.  今天的決議,符合七國集團(G7)的立場,澄清了那些交易的禁令,以及保管機構(CSD)持有俄羅斯被凍結資產所產生的收入的法定地位,並為持有這些資產的實體制定了明確的規則。理事會特別決定,持有超過100萬歐元俄羅斯中央銀行資產的保管機構,必須將因歐盟限制措施而累積的額外現金餘額單獨記帳,並必須將產生的收入單獨保存。此外,禁止保管機構處置產生的淨利潤

In view of risks and costs related to holding of the assets and reserves of the Central Bank of Russia, each central security depository may request its supervisory authority to authorise a release of a share of those net profits in view of complying with statutory capital and risk management requirements.  考慮到持有俄羅斯央行資產和儲備所涉及的風險和成本,每個中央證券保管機構可以向其監管機構申請,根據法定資本和風險管理要求,授權解凍部分淨利潤。

This decision paves the way for the Council to decide on a possible establishment of a financial contribution to the EU budget raised on these net profits to support Ukraine and its recovery and reconstruction at a later stage. This financial contribution may be channeled through the EU budget to the Ukraine Facility on which the Council and the European Parliament reached a provisional agreement on 6 February 2024.  這項決定為理事會在稍後階段決定可能建立以這些淨利潤籌集的歐盟預算財政捐款,以奠定支持烏克蘭及其重建和復興的基礎。這筆財政捐款可能透過歐盟預算轉入「烏克蘭基金」,理事會和歐洲議會於 2024 年 2 月 6 日就此達成了臨時協議。

Background背景

In their statement of 6 December 2023, G7 leaders reiterated that decisive progress was needed to direct extraordinary revenues held by private entities stemming directly from Russia's immobilised sovereign assets to support Ukraine.  七國集團領導人在2023年12月6日的聲明中重申,需要取得決定性進展,將引導私人實體所持有俄羅斯被凍結的主權資產的超額收入用於支持烏克蘭。

In its conclusions of 14-15 December 2023, the European Council reiterated its resolute condemnation of Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine, which constitutes a manifest violation of the UN Charter, and reaffirmed the European Union's unwavering support for Ukraine's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders and its inherent right to self-defence. The European Council further reiterated its call for decisive progress, in coordination with partners, on how extraordinary revenues held by private entities stemming directly from Russia’s immobilised assets could be directed to support Ukraine and its recovery and reconstruction, consistent with applicable contractual obligations, and in accordance with EU and international law.  歐洲理事會在2023年12月14日至15日的結論中,重申堅決譴責俄羅斯侵略烏克蘭的戰爭,這明顯違反了《聯合國憲章》,並重申歐盟堅定支持烏克蘭的獨立、主權和領土完整。在其國際公認的邊界及其固有的自衛權範圍內。歐洲理事會進一步重申,其呼籲與合作夥伴協調,在如何將直接來自俄羅斯固定資產的私人實體持有的超額收入用於支持烏克蘭及其恢復和重建方面取得決定性進展,符合適用的合約義務,並符合歐盟和國際法。

Around €260 billion in Central Bank of Russia assets have been immobilised in the form of securities and cash in the jurisdictions of the G7 partners, the EU and Australia, with more than two thirds of those immobilised in the EU.  俄羅斯央行約2,600億歐元的資產已以證券和現金的形式被凍結在七國集團合作夥伴、歐盟和澳洲的管轄範圍內,其中三分之二以上被歐盟凍結。

  • G7 Leaders’ Statement, 6 December 2023
  • Russia: EU renews sanctions over Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine, press release 20 July 2023
  • EU Sanctions against Russia explained (background information)
  • Timeline - EU restrictive measures against Russia over Ukraine
  • European Council conclusions, 14-15 December 2023
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