奇蹟食物「台灣香檬」(三):最珍貴的營養在果皮上(科學研究報告整理)

許惠珺
許惠珺
本文發佈於 我蓋了一間農舍
5
2020-02-11
|閱讀時間 ‧ 約 16 分鐘

台灣香檬,又稱扁實檸檬,台語有人叫它「酸桔仔」、「山柑仔」。日文叫シークヮーサー,意思是「酸到難以入口」。
今天台灣有農人給它冠上一個稱號,叫「希望的果實」。為什麼把台灣香檬叫做「希望的果實」?不研究還不知道,一研究才發現,台灣香檬竟然對人體健康大有益處,而其最珍貴的營養,就在果皮上!
台灣香檬的果皮,含有四種重要的營養成份:川陳皮素(Nobiletin)、橘皮素(Tangeretin)、辛弗林(Synephrine)、橙皮苷(Hesperidin),又稱維生素P,其中以川陳皮素帶來的養生效果最為顯著。
台灣香檬不怕蟲害(只怕天牛),所以很容易種植,它的防衛機制就在它的果皮上,可以保護裡面的籽,也可以給人類食用帶來益處。
有關「川陳皮素」的研究,始於西元兩千年,以日本的研究居多,研究人員一直想找出日本大宜味村村民如此長壽的祕訣。
根據動物研究和試管研究的結果,發現台灣香檬對於健康,可能有下列好處:
一、有助於抗癌[9,14](攝護腺癌[1]、皮膚癌[8]、乳癌[21,22,23]、肝癌[4]、胃癌[5]、大腸癌[2,3,6]和血癌[24]
  • 川陳皮素似乎能夠啟動並加強身體的自我防衛機制,幫助身體對抗癌細胞。
  • 吃越多,效果越好(效果和劑量有關)。
二、有助於抗發炎[9,10,13,14]
有助於對抗肝病[25]、骨關節炎[8]、類風溼性關節炎[8]、氣喘[11]、曬傷[12]。
三、有助於降三高:高血壓、高血糖、高血脂
有助於降低血膽固醇[18]
四、有助於減肥(減少脂肪)[27]、預防骨質疏鬆[26]
五、有助於預防糖尿病[28,29]
六、有助於對抗神經性發炎:能逆轉老年失智症[15,16,17]
七、有助於對抗過敏:能減輕癢[20]
八、有助於改善青春痘[19]
以上研究,都是針對香檬果皮中萃取出來的川陳皮素,所以一定要設法食用果皮,但整顆果實都食用最好,因為果實內富含微量元素和植化素。
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以上資訊所參考的文獻如下:
1. Protective effects of citrus nobiletin and auraptene in transgenic rats developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) and human prostate carcinoma cells. Cancer Science. 2007 April;98(4):471-7
2. Citrus nobiletin inhibits azoxymethane-induced large bowel carcinogenesis in rats. Biofactors. 2004;22(1-4):111-4
3. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-7 (matrilysin) expression in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2005 February;69(2):307-14
4. Inhibition of cell proliferation by nobiletin, a dietary phytochemical, associated with apoptosis and characteristic gene expression, but lack of effect on early rat hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. Cancer Science. 2004 Decemer;95(12):936-42
5. Anti-tumour effects of nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, on gastric cancer include: antiproliferative effects, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle deregulation. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2004 Jul;20 Suppl 1:95-101
6. Dietary administration of citrus nobiletin inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Life Science. 2001 July 13;69(8):901-13
7. Inhibitory effect of citrus nobiletin on phorbol ester-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress, and tumor promotion in mice Cancer Research. 2000 September 15;60(18):5059-66
8. A citrus flavonoid, nobiletin, suppresses production and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9/gelatinase B in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Journal of Rheumatoly. 2000 January;27(1):20-5
9. Anti-inflammatory property of the urinary metabolites of nobiletin in mouse. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters .2007 September 15;17(18):5177-81
10. Nobiletin from citrus fruit peel inhibits the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB and ROS production in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007 August15;113(1):149-55
11. Antagonistic effects of nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavonoid, on eosinophilic airway inflammation of asthmatic rats and relevant mechanisms. Life Science. 2006 May 1;78(23):2689-96
12. Prevention of UVB-induced photoinflammation and photoaging by a polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin, in human keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2004 August 1;68(3):433-9.
13. Novel anti-inflammatory actions of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, on human synovial fibroblasts and mouse macrophages. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2003 June 15;65(12):2065-71
14. In vitro absorption and metabolism of nobiletin, a chemopreventive polymethoxyflavonoid in citrus fruits. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2001 January;65(1):194-7
15. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid that improves memory impairment, rescues bulbectomy-induced cholinergic neurodegeneration in mice. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2007 September;105(1):122-6
16. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, reverses learning impairment associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2007 May;321(2):784-90
17. Nobiletin restoring beta-amyloid-impaired CREB phosphorylation rescues memory deterioration in Alzheimer disease model rats. Neuroscience Letters. 2006 June 12;400(3):230-4
18. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines, selectively inhibits class A scavenger receptor-mediated metabolism of acetylated LDL by mouse macrophages. Atherosclerosis. 2005 January;178(1):25-32
19. A citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin inhibits sebum production and sebocyte proliferation, and augments sebum excretion in hamsters. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2007 December;127(12):2740-8.
20. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid, exerts anti-allergic effect by suppressing activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
Journal of Functional Foods. Volume 6, January 2014, Pages 606–614.
21. Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity of nobiletin against three subtypes of human breast cancer cell lines.
Anticancer Res. 2014 Apr;34(4):1785-92.
22. Tangeretin and nobiletin induce G1 cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis in human breast and colon cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2007 Jun 18;251(1):168-78. Epub 2007 Jan 2.
23. Nobiletin suppresses cell viability through AKT Pathways in PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014; 15: 59.
24. Nobiletin suppresses the proliferation and induces apoptosis involving MAPKs and caspase-8/-9/-3 signals in human acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014 Dec;35(12):11903-11. doi: 10.1007/s13277-014-2457-0. Epub 2014 Aug 28.
25. The Citrus Flavonoids Hesperetin and Nobiletin Differentially Regulate Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Transcription in HepG2 Liver Cells
J Nutr. 2008 Jul; 138(7): 1274–1281.
26. Nobiletin Prevents Body Weight Gain and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized C57BL/6J Mice
Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol.5 No.10, September 2014
27. Regulation of adipocytokine secretion and adipocyte hypertrophy by polymethoxyflavonoids, nobiletin and tangeretin
Life Sci. 2011 March 28;88(13-14):613-8.
28. Nobiletin Attenuates VLDL Overproduction, Dyslipidemia, and Atherosclerosis in Mice With Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance
Diabetes. 2011 May; 60(5): 1446–1457.
29. Nobiletin improves hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in obese diabetic ob/ob mice
Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 1;79(11):1674-83.
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許惠珺
許惠珺
讀電腦,卻成為譯者。不孕,卻養了四個孩子。電腦碩士嫁電腦博士,但四個孩子都在家自學。 2015年底,從台北舉家移居東海岸,買農地,種蔬果,蓋農舍。一家六口在家工作、在家自學,在美麗的太平洋濱,展開豐富的農莊生活。 著作:這樣做,寶寶超好帶、像我們這樣一個家、這樣學翻譯就對了、在家自學的四個孩子。
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都市生活的擁擠空間和緊湊步調,讓我們一家六口在2015年底,像逃難似的逃到台東海岸偏鄉,打算永久定居在此。有太多人質疑,在缺乏各樣資源的偏鄉,如何能謀生、孩子如何受到良好的教育、醫療需要如何顧及......習慣都市生活的人,對鄉居生活有種種疑慮和不安。對這些疑問,我沒有標準答案,只有親身體驗的歷程。


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