2022/08/09閱讀時間約 14 分鐘
2022年7月28日The Economist報導《Why women are fatter than men in the Arab world》
Why women are fatter than men in the Arab world / The Economist
60 歲的Zeinab 身著黑袍,在巴格達的一家餐館洗菜,每天帶2萬迪拉姆(約13美元)回家,但也買不起給一家人像樣的晚餐。她的女兒因為學費太高而輟學。
Zeinab勉強過活,她老闆會給餐廳剩菜,她說大都是油膩食物。星期四是她和女兒中唯一吃水果的日子,慈善團體所捐贈。Zeinab體重 120 公斤。
【get by】 免強過活。
Zeinab, a matronly 60-year-old in a black abaya, washes vegetables in a restaurant in Baghdad, taking home 20,000 dirhams ($13.70) a day. But she cannot afford to buy her family a decent dinner. Her daughters dropped out of school because the fees were too high. Zeinab gets by because her boss gives her leftovers—mostly oily food, she says—from the restaurant. Thursday is the only day of the week she and her daughters eat fruit, since that is when people in her neighbourhood give away food for charity. Zeinab weighs 120kg.
雖然她的四個女兒都長大了,但都沒有工作,他們都很可能會變胖。Zeinab 寧願手頭拮据,也不願讓她們在工作中被男人騷擾的風險。所以他們坐在家裡,做家務,偶爾拜訪家人。Zeinab 有時會帶他們出去吃冰淇淋或參觀聖殿。「這不像在監獄,他們有電話和互聯網」她辯解著。
【strapped】 手頭拮据(缺錢)
Though grown up, none of her four daughters works. They are likely to become fat, too. Zeinab would rather be strapped for cash than risk men harassing them at work. So they sit at home, doing chores, occasionally visiting their extended family. Zeinab sometimes takes them out for an ice cream or to visit a holy shrine. “It’s not like they’re in prison—they’ve got phones and the internet,” she says defensively.
世界上,肥胖的女性多於男性,有 15%女性、 11%男性有肥胖問題,他們的BMI為 30或更高。但世界各地的肥胖差距不一,中東北非性別差異最大。(南部非洲幾個國家也有很大的差距)。在中東,有26%女性是肥胖,男性16%,這相當危險,2019年,8 個阿拉伯國家躋身因肥胖至死率最高的 11 個國家之列(主要是心臟病、糖尿病和高血壓)。
Across the world, more women than men are fat. Obesity is a problem for 15% of women and 11% of men, meaning that they have a body mass index (bmi) of 30 or higher. But the obesity gap varies across the world. The Middle East and north Africa has the biggest and most consistent disparity between the sexes. (Several countries in southern Africa have big gaps, too.) In the Middle East 26% of women are obese versus 16% of men. This can be dangerous. In 2019, eight Arab countries were among the 11 with the highest share of deaths attributed to obesity (mostly due to heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure).
【miss out on】錯失享樂、或獲利的機會
Only a fifth of women in Arab countries have paid jobs, says the World Bank. In Iraq the share is one in ten. This means that most Arab women spend most of the day indoors, missing out on passive exercise. Working women in other regions bustle around in hospitals, classrooms and restaurants. But in Arab countries many such jobs are done mainly by men. In Gulf countries many of the heavier menial household chores are done by foreigners.
【frown on/upon sth】不贊成;不允許
Moreover, women in Arab countries have fewer chances to enjoy sport. Young girls and boys play football together in the street. But once a girl reaches puberty, roughhousing in public is frowned upon. Teenage girls become more sedentary, meeting friends indoors. “We don’t like girls to be outside,” says a sweaty Iraqi man who plays football outdoors four times a week but does not let his sister follow suit. She has a treadmill at home, he says.
【block sth out】擋住(聲音/光線)
In any case, headscarves and clothes that cover the female body make public exercise cumbersome. Harassment in the street often makes jogging unpleasant. “When I walk my dogs, I have to put on music to block out the catcalls,” says an Iraqi woman. Strolling tends to be in air-conditioned malls. Some gyms cater just to women, but are found mainly in big cities.
飲食有很大的責任,埃及人 30% 的卡路里來自麵包,其中大部分是補貼的:一公斤的價格0.61美元,1975 年以來,阿拉伯女性比男性胖得更快,垃圾食品則穩步增長。
In Egypt poor women are on average fatter than rich ones. Rich families tend to be more relaxed about letting their daughters out. Still, Egypt has the highest women’s bmi of any country in the world, bar some of the Pacific islands. Diet bears much of the blame. Egyptians get 30% of their calories from bread, much of it subsidised: the price of a kilo is fixed at $0.61. Since 1975 Arab women have grown fatter at a quicker rate than Arab men, while junk food has steadily proliferated.
Wafa al-Khatib,一位巴格達家庭主婦想瘦,要求母親多煮一些,幫她抵抗烹飪誘惑。「伊拉克人的問題是碳水化合物」她說,她家人幾乎每餐都吃米飯和麵包。
【slim down】變瘦
Wafa al-Khatib, a housewife in Baghdad, wants to slim down, so she asked her mother to do more of the cooking to help her resist culinary temptation. “Iraqis’ problem is carbohydrates,” she says. Her family eats rice and bread at nearly every meal.
另一位伊拉克家庭主婦 Shireen Rashid 想瘦幾磅,但不會太多,她說當你很瘦會失去女性氣質,她丈夫根本不希望她減肥,因為擔心她會「感覺像床上的一塊木頭」。
【let alone】更不用說
A final cause of obesity, according to some women, is that many Arab men prefer them to be Rubens-esque. Shutting women up at home helps keep them that way. Shireen Rashid, another Iraqi housewife, wants to shed a few pounds. But not too many. When you are skinny, “you lose your femininity”, she says. Her husband does not want her to lose weight at all. He fears she will “feel like a piece of wood in bed”. Iraqis often cite Enas Taleb, an actress with ample curves (pictured), as the ideal of beauty. Some claim Iraqi women even take weight-gaining pills to be more attractive to men. Alas, in the Arab world or indeed anywhere else, that is hardly the road to good health, let alone happiness.
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